Music & Talk

How to connect the audiophile with the artist?

Getting started in audiophile music usually presents quite a challenge, because, at the very beginning, nothing is fixed. From the energy to feed the system, via the components chosen and the room they are placed in, right to the source of the music itself, everything is either in doubt or in flux. In such a listening scenario, even great recordings may go unnoticed, while others may appear to sound ‘great’ due to their ability to cut through the haze. The more obstacles we remove, the more exceptional recordings will be able to stand out from the rest. But even then, buying music on vinyl is a bit of a gamble, because so much of the sound depends on the mastering and pressing of the record. In the ‘Music’ part of this section, I aim to provide some basic pointers to help you navigate this terrain.

The ‘Talk’ aspect of this section is to provide you with unusual perspectives from collectors and performers, for us to explore the relationship between the creation of a sound event to the re-creation of this event in our living rooms. Interestingly enough, creators of music do not necessarily have a strong interest in High Fidelity or even highly sensitive hearing. At the same time, audiophile listeners very often have absolutely no clue about the artistic side of the process or the ability to play an instrument. Bringing the two sides together and leading them towards mutual understanding and appreciation may help all of us in raising the bar of what is technically possible today.

Audiophile Music

  • Jörg Hegemann, High End Boogie Woogie

    Jörg Hegemann, High End Boogie Woogie

    14/03/2022

    Author: Karsten Hein

    Category: Audiophile Music

    Tag(s): Jazz

    When Jörg Hegemann returned to Hansahaus Studios Bonn in February 2022, the intention communicated to producer and studio owner Klaus Genuit was simply to record the sequel to the “Foot Tappin’ Boogie” album, and to take this recording to an even higher acoustic level this time around. You see, Jörg‘s 2021 album had struck all the right chords and had been praised by some reviewers as the world’s first audiophile Boogie Woogie album. Therefore, for his new “High End Boogie Woogie” album, the big question was whether both the musicians and the studio could top Jörg’s previous success. — No pressure, of course.

    Klaus Genuit’s studio had long since made a name for itself in producing excellent recordings, but in order to succeed one more time, Jörg and his fellow musicians needed to identify what had made their previous recording work so well. One such element was surely the chemistry between the musicians themselves. Watching them reunited again, there was a strong sense of purposeful harmony, with everyone knowing their roles and readily making their special contributions to the recording. The famous double bass man Paul G. Ulrich, the seasoned Boogie shouter Thomas Aufermann, and the legendary Boogie Woogie pianist Jörg Hegemann, all managed to keep up a very high momentum and feed song after song into Klaus Genuit’s mixing console.

    Another element was the high quality of studio equipment. Klaus Genuit himself was not unaware of the fact that large recording studios such as Hansahaus were almost impossible to set up with the budgets available for today’s productions. He himself had been fortunate enough to make his investments when music labels’ recording budgets were still in the five to seven digits for a single album. Contemporary studios tend to be smaller and more depend on computer software rather than analog or hardware solutions. Klaus Genuit himself was at the prime of his profession and had managed to set his equipment up as to achieve a hard to duplicate sound balance from top to bottom. This had arguably been Foot Tappin’ Boogie’s biggest asset: The combination of great tonal balance and the believable amount of musical detail.

    In the making of “High End Boogie Woogie” it was decided to record at a higher sampling rate in order to be more flexible later, for instance when changing from compact disc to vinyl or online streaming media. To some extent, perhaps also to merit the description "High End". Initially, there was some discussion about the recording format, because, if unused, the additional effort of recording at a higher sampling rate would hardly be worth it. We promised to make full use of the available format and finally started the recording session at 96kHz.

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    The final element was perhaps the piano itself. Those of us who have been fortunate enough to play even a single note on a Steinway and Sons grand piano will be familiar with the dignity and caress with which this particular instrument treats every single note. And Jörg hardly ever played a single note. He had the special gift to set this piano on fire like few others. Jörg and the Steinway combined to create a Boogie Woogie fireworks that would have been impossible to capture if it were not for the special gift of Klaus Genuit and his studio. Looking at the piano, Jörg once said: “When this session is over, we’ll both need a rest and a bit of servicing.”

    High End Boogie Woogie is the most worthy successor to Jörg’s previous album. At the time of writing this, there is nothing to rival it in the world of Boogie Woogie. The album takes the combo’s playing style to the next level of perfection and the listener on a journey through the world of Boogie Woogie as it was meant to be performed and listened to. So crank up your High End stereo system and prepare to bathe in the sound. For the love of music and the unbridled expression of happiness that is the Boogie Woogie. — Enjoy!

    Listen to 'Cherry Red' from High End Boogie Woogie playing on our Martin Logan speakers.


  • Jörg Hegemann, Foot Tappin' Boogie

    Jörg Hegemann, Foot Tappin' Boogie

    14/05/2021

    Author: Karsten Hein

    Category: Audiophile Music

    Tag(s): Boogie Woogie

    There is something very pleasing about getting older, as it takes time to mature in character. This is true for great wines, whiskeys and some cheeses, but also for artists such as musicians and writers. And perhaps the greatest pleasure lies in maturing together, as every day there is a new wine ready for drinking and a new musician to reach a level of accomplishment that is impossible to reach without true devotion and the ever-important element of time.

    Jörg first approached me in 2002, asking if I was perhaps interested in translating the booklet of his new CD. The recommendation had come from a mutual friend, Thomas Aufermann, and I reluctantly accepted without knowing what genre of music Jörg played. As it turned out, the album was called ‘Eight to the Bar’, a reference to eight beats to one bar, the foundation of the Boogie Woogie. At the time of writing my first translation for Jörg, the Boogie Woogie was a genre that I was completely unfamiliar with. And as I had never heard the Boogie performed live, I had to rely on the CD recording to form my opinion. Sadly, as was the case with many live recordings of the time, there was a general lack of dynamics and a lack in stereo imaging that made it difficult for me to assess the genre.

    With each new album that I was asked to translate, I could hear that Jörg’s skills as musician were becoming ever more refined. And while I gradually grew accustomed to the music and could enjoy it more, the quality of the recordings was not on par with Jörg’s skills as musician. Audiophiles are a neglected species, and I am sure that listening to the CDs on a car radio would have produced acceptable results, but in the world of meticulously set up HiFi rigs, the recordings fell desperately short of perfection. And I confess that I was troubled by this and even addressed the issue with Jörg. Over the telephone he consoled me, saying that his 2021 album was to be recorded in a proper recording studio with all the bells and whistles of a modern production.

    ‘Foot Tappin’ Boogie’ is Jörg’s 10th full CD album. It is also the 6th album for which I was asked to translate the CD booklet, and it is Jörg’s first album to offer music at a recording quality level that we audiophiles can really appreciate. Listening to just 30 seconds of this album gave me a satisfied grin on my face that I had trouble supressing all the way through to the last song. Jörg’s exceptional gift as musician meets sophisticated recording studio quality to create a true firework of a Boogie Woogie performance. Considering the age and increasing rarity of the genre, paired with Jörg’s exceptional skills as musician, ‘Foot Tappin’ Boogie’ might easily be the best Boogie Woogie recording ever made. I found myself running through our apartment yelling "He did it! He finally got it right!"

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    Of course, it helped that Jörg had called upon a formidable group of musicians to make this recording come to life with him. There is the album’s guest star: double bass man Paul G. Ulrich; his 20-year companion in music: drummer Jan Freund; and Jörg’s long-time friend and Boogie shouter: Thomas Aufermann. Together, they make the Boogie sound effortless, highly rhythmical, and extremely engaging. The recording is well-balanced with the instruments nicely spread out over the stage to form a homogenous musical event. Well done.

    If you are looking for an audiophile album to take you on a mature and eloquently presented journey through the world of Boogie Woogie that has the skills and the sound quality to match, this is the album to go for. I will keep this CD close at hand in my short-listed audiophile collection and share it with fellow audiophiles, that they too can experience the full depth and breadth of the Boogie.


  • Carmen Lundy, Soul to Soul

    Carmen Lundy, Soul to Soul

    16/04/2021

    Author: Karsten Hein

    Category: Audiophile Music

    Tag(s): Jazz

    I have rarely come across a Jazz album that feels as instantly entertaining and naturally balanced as Carmen Lundy’s 2014 album 'Soul to Soul'. There are subtle changes in speed and dynamics from song to song that are just different enough to keep us interested and similar enough to preserve the album’s inner harmony. The music is sparsely instrumented, the recordings are tonally accurate, even delicate, with a soft warmth to them. There is a pervasive sense of natural stage depth and dimension throughout. As I am listening to the album on our newly refurbished Technics SL-1310 turntable with its original Shure M75ED entry-level classic, it is difficult to imagine a better sound.

    ‘Soul to Soul’ is Carmen Lundy’s twelfth music album and, in typical Lundy fashion, features many original recordings. Born in Miami Florida in November 1954, she decided to become a professional singer after joining her local church choir. She was twelve years old at the time. After receiving her BA in music, Lundy moved to New York where she quickly found engagements alongside contemporary Jazz greats. In a career spanning half a century, Lundy has cut her own career path, composing and publishing more than forty original songs along the way, predominantly Vocal Jazz. 'Soul to Soul' is in many ways the culmination of her experience and a definite recommendation for soulful nighttime cruises. Enjoy!

    What is Carmen Lundy's best album? Feel free to share your thoughts in the comments section below.


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  • Bridges, Chamber Orchestra

    Bridges, Chamber Orchestra

    23/03/2021

    Author: Karsten Hein

    Category: Audiophile Music

    On Wednesday, 17 March 2021, I received an e-mail invitation from a musician friend to watch the YouTube streaming of a music performance by a Frankfurt-based chamber orchestra in which my friend plays the cello, taking place on the following night.

    I had not spoken to Gabriel Mientka in a long time and had hardly noticed the occasional Facebook post, which showed advancements in his music career. I did remember that Gabriel was a member of the Cellharmonics quartet, consisting of Larissa Nagel, Christine Roider, Christopher Herrmann, and himself. And I had even seen some of their earlier performances, but — with two young kids in the house and a business to run — in recent years, we had stopped attending public venues.

    In the time that Gabriel had been playing the cello around the world, some things had changed on my side as well. For one thing, my interest in setting up audiophile HiFi systems had led me to a deeper appreciation of music, which was slowly taking me away from repetitive Pop culture to more sophisticated recordings and arrangements of acoustic instruments. Depth, breadth, dynamics, rhythm, flow, and the presence of organic materials are the salt of great recordings.

    When Gabriel wrote in his e-mail that he was now playing the Cello in the ‘Bridges’ chamber music orchestra, and that this could be streamed live via YouTube, I was immediately intrigued by the idea that I could listen to him and his colleagues perform live from living room couch, without conflicting with my duties as a father. What a wonderful and exciting opportunity. The fact that this music could also be played via our Martin Logan electrostatic system was a nice bonus, of course.

    Apparently, the Bridges chamber orchestra had just come back from their winter break, and created a fresh new concert, premiering six original pieces that had been — in true Bridges tradition — composed by the musicians themselves. The e-mail went on to remind us of the special and challenging situation that musicians have been facing in times of COVID-19 and pointed out that the transcultural Bridges was a symbol of freedom and successful transnational co-operation.

    On the night of the event, I called the family together on the living room couch, lowered the lights, and tuned our projector in to the YouTube stream. We set our system at realistic live performance volume and watched with anticipation. That the NAXOS theatre makes a decent venue for a chamber orchestra, was my first thought. It also felt good to see 25 musicians come together to perform their special craft, despite the fact that no audience was allowed to physically attend. It reminded me of the band continuing to play until the last minute on the sinking Titanic. In both cases this helped to bring about some reassurance that essential aspects of what makes us great as human beings are still intact.

    I could not help but marvel at the orderly fashion in which all musicians played their part, taking time to pay respect to each other’s performances, each falling into place under the directions of the conductor. There is a pervading sense of dignity and respect towards one another that is especially highlighted in an orchestra as culturally and musically as diverse as this one. Bridges’s multi-ethnic musicians played a range of pieces heavily influenced by Syrian, Andalusian, Turkish, Columbian, and Hungarian music culture, the musicians’ countries of origin. The conductor was Nabil Shehata, who is also the chief conductor of the South-Westfalia Philharmonic.

    Although our kids are just three and seven years old, we all enjoyed the performance very much. When at times concentration lapsed, this was mostly due to passages in which something was not quite right in the technical presentation of the music. For instance, some instruments, such as percussion, were recorded at very low volume. When these instruments took the lead or played longer parts, some of the original momentum and potential of the pieces were lost.

    For the most part, we were drawn into the event. Although, for some reason, the changing of camera angles always resulted in a brief deterioration of image quality which again made it clear that we were watching a recording rather than being present ourselves. We were also surprised to see that there were cuts between the pieces which highlighted the fact that we were not following the actual event live. Sadly, YouTube is not known for excellence in sound. I am not sure what algorithms are used to compress music, but the sound quality was not on par with the usual ability of our home setup.

    The pieces themselves were well-presented and gave a good impression of the ethnic diversity all around us and the possibility for cooperation between these cultures. Although quite different in timbre and harmonics, no instrument or musician sounded out of place, and no theme was boring or disappointing to listen to in and of itself. I am grateful for the opportunity of attending a concert with our children present in the comfort of our own home, a concert that each of us can relate to, especially but not exclusively, because we are friends with one of the musicians. I would wish for such luxury to become standard and have highlighted areas of potential improvement in the paragraphs above, simply because I feel that this type of offer, if done well, would be a lasting change for the better.

    I enjoyed reading the musicians’ profiles on the Bridges Frankfurt website and on their Facebook page, as well as listening to Gabriel Mientka’s own composition. “Constantinople” was the last song of the event. It sounded full and energetic with lots of natural flow. A wonderful piece that left the audience on a high note.

    P.S.: Candidly, I hope to invite Gabriel for an interview to find out more about his relationship with the cello and with music in general. I need to find out more about the people who make the actual music that we audiophiles listen to and to experience first-hand, if they in turn can derive some pleasure from performances being replayed at a higher than usual level of acoustic sophistication. My hope is that by listening to each other well, we will better understand what each side is striving to achieve.


  • Alin Coen Band, Wer bist Du?

    Alin Coen Band, Wer bist Du?

    24/01/2021

    Author: Karsten Hein

    Category: Audiophile Music

    Tag(s): Singer Songwriter

    Well, we could ask the same question. — So, who is Alin Coen? Having shied away from public media for some years now, due to the increasingly deafening presence of irrelevant nonsense, Alin’s 10-year presence in the German public eye had simply escaped me. After all, Germany is a small country that is comfortably perched at the centre of a large and bitchy neighbourhood. A community of national pride in which local talents usually remain strictly local phenomenons. We are still far from the cosmopolitain Europe that would create legends to rival those from across the pond. And, sadly, I have a frightful feeling that this outlook will not be any different for Alin Coen and her band. What a shame, because they have so much going for themselves.

    Alin was born in Hamburg in 1982 and was raised bi-lingual in German and Spanish. Having spent some time in Scandinavia, she speaks proper English as well. Similar to many German musicians she holds a full university degree, a backdoor to a decent job that will always be open to her, just in case her music career should become too much of a challenge. Bummer. This structured approach to life is arguably one of the reasons why true and lasting passion for music is rare to be found in this country, with the world’s megastars to be found in places where artists are willing to bleed and more often than not need to overcome hardship to follow their passions.

    “Wer bist Du?” was written at a time when Alin and her university friends and band members re-decided to take up music rather than follow a career in environmental science. Who are you, who am I? Who cares? — All we can say for certain is that Alin’s debut album was released under her own “Pflanz einen Baum” label in August 2010. Apparently, the German weekly ‘Stern’ even had the album listed as highlight of the week. A later album of hers “Nah” was given the same honour by the radio station MDR Kultur. But how much good is a week of support in today’s competitive world? The trouble with the German nine-to-five media is that they neither ‘think big’ nor do they think very far. Pushing a young star up the billboards is not something we might expect from such stuffy and well-situated institutions. Here, too, are people unwilling to bleed for their passion.

    “Wer bist Du?” is a straight forward singer-songwriter album lending elements of Indie Pop mixed with Folk. Voice and instrumentation are soothing and calm enough for nighttime listening, an important factor for audiophiles waiting for the city to fall asleep and for the power grid to calm down. Although the lyrics are not the first thing to strike the listener’s attention when listening to the album, Alin’s choice of words does merit the description ‘poetic’. Personally, I prefer her English language songs, because I find her voice and intonation more instantly believable than her German singing voice (with slight Spanish accent?). However, this could well be a mirror of my own scepticism towards German language songs. Having listened to the album a few times, I hardly notice the language changing anymore, and the German has become more familiar. All of her songs appear to be genuine and hand-made and, as such, are well above the usual Pop and radio standard.

    Here is an album that has the potential to grow with your audiophile HiFi-system. When Sabina first brought it along for our evening sessions together, our main system consisting of Martin Logan electrostatic speakers still sounded somewhat thin and unbalanced. Consequently, “Wer bist Du?” also sounded a bit light, with too much emphasis on upper voice and lower bass. I was not aware of this at the time and thought this was simply how the album sounded. With each improvement to our system, the music became richer and tonally more accurate. Having completed our most recent updates, most obviously those to our cables, “Wer bist Du?” now has a pleasant fullness and warmth to the voice, as well as a wonderful mid-bass punch. I did not know I like this sort of thing, but it seems I do. 

    While both our systems now play the album well, I especially enjoy listening to it on our Halfer XL280 amp and Tannoy XT8F combo, on which the music now has a wonderfully organic flow that resembles my short experience with Harbeth speakers, a lush sound of earth and wood that really impressed me. Both the album and our system have become a soothing whole. And finally: Would I recommend this album to English audiophiles? Yes, I think you will enjoy it, for its ability to caress and surprise. Even the German songs paired with Alin’s voice are reassuring and melodic enough to appeal to international listeners.

    Feel free to share your experience with “Wer bist Du?” in the comments below.


  • Joshua Redman, Round Again

    Joshua Redman, Round Again

    21/01/2021

    Author: Karsten Hein

    Category: Audiophile Music

    Tag(s): Jazz

    I am by no means and expert in Jazz. I have neither been educated in music nor have I studied or followed the genre for very long. I came to Jazz mainly because of two things: the pleasure of discovering and listening to high quality recordings, and the boredom of being stuck in contemporary music that is all based on a handful of chords being repeated over and over again. Jazz speaks to me as an aging audiophile wanting to be tickled and teased, but also as a listener with an inquisitive mind.

    Having said this, I am not quite as green as I was 7 years ago—when I thought that Diana Krall made complex albums—and the names Redman, Mehldau, McBride, and Blade all rang a bell. McBride’s “Live at the Village Vanguard” I presented in this forum in October 2020, an album that I had first heard at a friend’s house on a Dynaco ST70 system running on Snell C4 speakers. In the spacious room with the 4,00m high ceilings, it sounded as if my friend had invited the musicians in person. I was very impressed, everything from the system to the room screamed: this is real. Perhaps, if I am lucky, he will let me present the components on eiaudio at some point.

    “Round Again” is the unlikely 2020 quartet reunion of the musicians, following Joshua Redman's “Moodswing” album back in 1994. Twenty-six years of separation are a long time, the equivalent of a life-sentence. A whole new generation has meanwhile taken over in music and elsewhere, and yet, the four musicians play with such familiarity that it seems as though they never parted. Joshua Redman on tenor saxophone, Brad Mehldau at the piano, Christian McBride on bass, and Brian Blade on drums create an engaging, lively atmosphere that is both highly sophisticated and surprisingly playful. For a relative novice like me, side A is easier to digest, with ‘Undertow’, ‘Moe Honk’, and ‘Silly Little Love Song’ having more approachable themes.  “Round Again” is my second album from The Guardian’s “10 best jazz albums of 2020” list. I am grateful for the recommendation.


  • 2Cellos, In2ition

    2Cellos, In2ition

    15/01/2021

    Author: Karsten Hein

    Category: Audiophile Music

    Tag(s): Acoustic Pop

    “In2ition” is the name of 2Cello’s second studio album and was first released in Japan in 2012. The Croatian cellist-duo that consists of classically trained cellists, Luca Sulic and Stjepan Hauser, had managed to secure a record deal with Sony in the previous year and have since released five albums. 

    The duo’s entry ticket to stardom was their 2011 cover of Michael Jackson’s song “Smooth Criminal” which received millions of views on Youtube within just a few weeks. Their cello renditions of world-famous tunes continue to captivate audiences worldwide though their juxtaposition of rawness, immediacy, and delicacy, a combination that is not often found.

    “In2ition” is a great album for audiophiles to test the ability of their HiFi system to breathe. When I bought the album following my first exposure to 2Cellos on Youtube, I was sad to find that most of the songs sounded loud, harsh, and compressed. Only the slow and highly melodic passages stood out to me, seemingly as masterpieces of the album. “So they have a few good recordings”, I thought to myself at the time and placed the album on the shelf.

    Many years have passed since my first listening, and with every improvement I made on our system, another song opened up its magic to me. What first sounded loud turned to dynamic, the harsh passages became sweeter, and what had appeared to be compressed became more spacious. Cellos offer lots of natural dynamics and can become very loud very quickly. Systems that have been set up to fully exploit their dynamic headroom will not only muster the energy it takes to swell, but also be able to subside quickly, thus leaving enough space for the music to breathe, even in passages that are loud and fast.

    Can your HiFi system breathe? Why don’t you find out with this CD and send me your report of your experience in the comments section below? Your input is much appreciated. Enjoy.


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  • Diana Krall, The Girl in the Other Room

    Diana Krall, The Girl in the Other Room

    09/01/2021

    Author: Karsten Hein

    Category: Audiophile Music

    Tag(s): Jazz

    “The Girl in the Other Room” was my introduction to the concept of Jazz. While I today understand that Krall’s seventh studio album is not really Jazz from a purist’s perspective, it certainly was Jazz to a novice like me. I enjoyed the fact that the songs were lyrically attractive, that the music was smooth and beautifully-crafted with lots of time and space to allow for individual notes to carry and sink in. And still, in the very beginning, the album was too disorganised for me, and I had to take long breaks and honestly only liked the more pop-like songs. My appreciation of Jazz motifs was still undeveloped at the time.

    Released in March 2004, “The Girl in the Other Room” was an experiment for Diana Krall herself, because it was the first album in which she did not only perform cover versions of established Jazz greats but wrote the songs and lyrics herself with the support of her husband Elvis Castello. About the process of songwriting she says: “I wrote the music and then Elvis and I talked about what we wanted to say. I told him stories and wrote pages and pages of reminiscences, descriptions and images, and he put them into tighter lyrical form. For 'Departure Bay,' I wrote down a list of things that I love about home, things I realised were different, even exotic, now that I've been away."

    In my opinion, the album’s lyrics are outstandingly beautiful. They were instantly familiar and relatable to me, a child of the seventies and eighties, in the sense that they mirrored the aesthetic beauty that was taught at American schools and widely accepted at the time. The song “Departure Bay” is about Diana returning to her hometown in British Columbia located on Vancouver Island and about the family spending the first Christmas following her mother’s death. The emptiness of the rooms and a sense of her mother’s lingering presence are so elegantly contrasted that the song has brought tears to my eyes many times. I even took it to one of my English classes and had my students interpret the lyrics with me.

    If you are new to Jazz and have a heart for good lyrics, then this album is accessible enough to get you started. If you already enjoy Jazz and can appreciate tighter and less experimental musical concepts, give it a go, you just might enjoy it. To my mind, “The Girl in the Other Room” is a step up from Norah Jones’ “Come Away with Me” and a real treat in terms of audiophile listening. Give this album some time, it will grow on you. And if you should go for the CD version, I would recommend not getting the SACD. Having set my system up properly by following the twenty-something rules described in the High Fidelity section of this forum, I can assure you that the benefit of the SACD is mostly the increased profit of the label. The supposedly smoother top-end due to the improved high frequency roll-off does not make up for the hassle of having to deal with failing lasers, etc.


  • Kari Bremnes, Norwegian Mood

    Kari Bremnes, Norwegian Mood

    05/01/2021

    Author: Karsten Hein

    Category: Audiophile Music

    Tag(s): Jazz

    “Norwegian Mood” is Kari Bremnes’ 9th solo album and her first English language production. Released on 24 April 2000, the album’s audiophile qualities took music critics by surprise. Germany’s STEREO magazine heralded it as an ‘audiophile highlight’.

    The songs are a mixture of Jazz motifs and Norwegian Folklore. Harsh winters that cloak Norway in long nights of darkness, the roughness of the sea, and the gloom that surrounds it all, are contrasted by her gentle voice and the stories that it tells. Much of Kari’s own background shines through in the cosmopolitan air and thoughtfully composed lyrics that she creates.

    Kari Bremnes was born in 1956 in the Lofoten part of Norway and holds a BA in language, literature, history, and theatre studies. She worked as a journalist until she became a full-time musician and today lives in Oslo. Her Music career spans more than 25 years, and her audience has steadily grown with her. She has won many local and international prizes and now ranks among the most influential Scandinavian performers in the music industry. 

    From a listening perspective, I have found the album to be captivating, despite its at times melancholic mood. On the positive side, the Jazz compositions carry more weight than the Folk elements. Actually, it is this careful balance that first makes the album accessible to an international audience. On the downside, modern listening equipment will all too easily reveal a slight harshness in the highs, a subtle metallic ringing, especially around the recording of her voice, that the album would better do without. This effect is possibly more pronounced on the CD than the vinyl version. If I were to purchase this album again, I would therefore choose vinyl for sure.


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  • Carla Bley, Life Goes On

    Carla Bley, Life Goes On

    03/01/2021

    Author: Karsten Hein

    Category: Audiophile Music

    Tag(s): Jazz

    Following the recommendations on The Guardian’s 10 best jazz albums of 2020 list, I felt compelled to go ahead and purchase Carla Bley’s "Life Goes On" studio album on vinyl and have since been very pleased with my choice. 

    Carla Bley is an American Jazz composer, pianist, organist, and bandleader. She was born as Lovella May Borg in Oakland California  in 1936 and has been an important figure in the 'Free Jazz' movement since the 1960s, with many of her compositions having been covered by other Jazz artists.

    "Life goes on" was released by ECM records in February 2020. ECM is famous for producing exceptional recordings, and "Life goes on" is in keeping with this tradition, in that it provides at a rare level of sophistication, both musically and technically. Playing the piano in her longtime trio with bassist Steve Swallow and British saxophonist Andy Sheppard, Bley teases us with a combination of musical understatement and seamless perfection. She says about the album: “We’re essentially a chamber music ensemble and this allows me to write music for us free of bombast and exaggeration”. 

    Without a drummer in their midst, the emotionally compelling arrangement leaves sufficient time and room around each instrument. Instead of being highly condensed and descriptive, the album rather invites its listeners to follow their own thoughts for a while. Having listened to the recording about five times, I have not been able to either stay focused on the music nor to turn it off before having listened to the entire album. 

    I find myself getting lost in my thoughts, and I crave for the music to continue—eternally. As if the mind cannot exist without it anymore. Well done, and highly addictive for meditative and audiophile nighttime listening.


  • Nick Cave, Idiot Prayer

    Nick Cave, Idiot Prayer

    27/12/2020

    Author: Karsten Hein

    Category: Audiophile Music

    Tag(s): Alternative

    The occurrence of Covid-19 and government measures against the spread of this particular strand of the flu lead to the cancellation of concert events worldwide throughout 2020. As artists were looking for alternative ways of staying in touch with their fans, their focus shifted from huge events at crowded public venues to more private chambers, often in the shape of the artists’ own and therefore intimate spaces.

    ‘Idiot Prayer: Nick Cave Alone at Alexandra Palace’ was shaped by the ongoing Covid-19 restrictions in that it places the Australian artist and his piano at the centre of the Great Hall of London’s Alexandra Palace, an ample space of 6,426 square meters and a ceiling height of 26m. While under non-Covid-19 circumstances the Palace is the host of awards ceremonies, public concerts, gala dinners, and exhibitions, Cave’s lonesome presence there serves well to reveal and underscore the full depth and force of his presence as an artist.

    There is more to Nick Cave than meets the eye. If are not convinced yet, ‘Idiot Prayer’ might be just what you have been missing. Intended as the culmination of a concert film trilogy that began with ’22,000 Days on Earth’ in 2014 and continued with ‘One More Time with Feeling’ in 2016, ‘Idiot Prayer’ was streamed live to ticket-holders around the globe on 23 July 2020 and then released as live-album on 20 November 2020.

    We were not in possession of tickets and had not followed the artist in some time, but seeing the album advertised on local billboards, my wife decided to candidly place it under our tree for Christmas. And I really must say that I am very grateful that she did so. The recording and mastering are of great quality. It seems the location itself may have added to the superb acoustics, in that it provided a natural balance of space and insulation that is so difficult to achieve. Nick Cave’s voice is well-captured with sufficient focus and dimension, and the piano is arranged around it to provide a musical frame. There is great timbre to the piano and voice that allows for long and effortless listening sessions.

    While many of the songs are familiar to me from previous Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds albums, hearing them played in this setting brings a new sense of sobriety and wisdom to them. Right from the very first words that are spoken, it became clear to me that I am listening to a fully accomplished poet and musician, an artist at the prime of his expression, a sober man with a story to tell. It is easy to be drawn into the recording and to lose oneself in the allusions and images that appear and fade before the mind’s eye. Nick Cave, the story-teller, in the midst of the Covid-19 crisis, in full control of his voice, his piano and his craft. A remarkable album.


  • Diana Krall, Turn up the Quiet

    Diana Krall, Turn up the Quiet

    02/11/2020

    Author: Karsten Hein

    Category: Audiophile Music

    Tag(s): Jazz

    "Turn up the Quiet" is Diana Krall’s 13th studio album and has been my personal reference medium for testing new HiFi equipment for some years now. When listened to over a car stereo or a mediocre home system, much of the album’s subtle charm may go unnoticed, but if the system is up to par, there is great tonal balance and spacial accuracy in this recording.

    Released on 5 May 2017, "Turn up the Quiet" is a collection of 11 Jazz standards which Diana Krall interprets alongside some of the best Jazz musicians of our time. Among these are Christian McBride, Russel Malone, Jeff Hamilton, and John Clayton Jr. The music comes across as effortless and compelling, as both playful and mature. It is easy to forget one is listening to HiFi gear and to just focus on the music instead — if the setup is right.

    Turn up the Quiet is a studio album that has been arranged around Diana’s voice. Consequently, the voice is presented louder than it would be in a live performance. This means the album should be played at around 70-80 dB living room volumes for it to be realistic. If you listen louder, the voice starts to sound unnatural, drawing too much attention to small clicks and pops happening left and right of Diana’s tongue.

    In summary, it can be said that Turn up the Quiet is a high quality studio album that should easily satisfy critical ears, for as long as it is played at realistic volumes with the singer’s voice as focal point. The album can be helpful in detecting flaws such as tonal coloration, etc., in the system and is also wonderful to enjoy on a well-balanced system. When I sometimes read in forums that people’s reference tracks are to be found on the tenth remastering of Dire Straits or Pink Floyd albums, here is something more modern to consider.


  • Christian McBride, Live at the Village Vanguard

    Christian McBride, Live at the Village Vanguard

    04/10/2020

    Author: Karsten Hein

    Category: Audiophile Music

    Tag(s): Jazz

    Christian McBride — Live at the Village Vanguard. A must for all Jazz enthusiasts who are into live and authentic small club performances. Published by Mac Avenue Records in December 2014, the high quality double album stretches over nearly 70mins.

    While the recording itself was compiled from three consecutive live sessions, listening to the full album appears natural and seamless. As is typical for performances of this nature, the music grows on you while it becomes more familiar, to the point where you can allow yourself to dissolve in the moment.

    Although ‘Live at the Vintage Vanguard’ is completely instrumental, it is easy to enjoy the brief episodes of spoken English, listening to Christian introduce the band, or thank everyone for coming. The album closes with renditions of “Down by the riverside” and “Car wash” and manages never to be boring despite these familiar tunes. Great job and wonderful on vinyl. Enjoy.


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  • Sandra MacBeth, Conjugal Scene

    Sandra MacBeth, Conjugal Scene

    09/07/2020

    Author: Karsten Hein

    Category: Audiophile Music

    Tag(s): Jazz

    I first came across the singer and songwriter Sandra Mac Beth listening to her song ‘8 Ball’ on the ‘Uncompressed World Vol. II - Audiophile female voices’ sampler. The song immediately stuck a cord with me, because of the high quality of its recording, its warm and insistent piano tones, and because of Sandra’s voice that startled me in its rawness, clarity, and warmth. The song did not appear to have have any of the smothering effects so common to modern recordings and, as such, was very pleasing to my ears.

    I set out to find out more about the artist, because I was hoping to listen to more of her songs. Yet, for some reason, none of my usual sources of music purchasing and streaming produced the desired result. I also watched some YouTube clips of Sandra’s, but since these were lacking the desired quality and even material, I decided to write her an e-mail and ask her to send me a copy of the album that ‘8 Ball’ was originally on.

    Sandra wrote back to inform me that her album ‘Conjugal Scene’ included ‘8-Ball’ and was available on Apple Music—which I have not subscribed to—and that she could send me a copy of the album and a more recent long player on CD from Scotland, to which I happily consented. The little envelope holding the CD and long player arrived just a few days later, and I was happy to find that about half of the tracks are of similar quality and attraction as the song that had led me to my search.

    There is a marked difference between the earlier tracks, which are of average recording quality and the tracks around ‘8 Ball’ which sonically really open up into the room and manage to carve out that purity in the voice that is so hard to come by. This has lead me to the idea that I would ask her for an interview with me on Music & Talk. Quite audacious at this point in time. Obviously, much more needs to be done, before I am ready and able to provide the setting online, but…I have already started ‘exploring’ the possibility. And that is the motto of this page.


  • Martin Sasse Trio, Studio-B Konzert

    Martin Sasse Trio, Studio-B Konzert

    16/06/2020

    Author: Karsten Hein

    Category: Audiophile Music

    Tag(s): Jazz

    A treat for vinyl Jazz fans: Martin Sasse Trio, in genuine AAA recording. Brought a big smile on my face throughout the session.

    “Große Emotionen sind bei den Direkt-Mitschnitten aus den Bauer Studios garantiert, besonders wenn Musiker des Kalibers auf der Bühne stehen, wie sie das Martin Sasse Trio zu bieten hat. Der Namensgeber der Formation, der an einem Steinway Flügel Platz nehmen durfte, hat schon gemeinsam mit Bobby Mc-Ferrin, Billy Cobham, Till Brönner und Sting musiziert, um hier nur einige zu nennen. Akustisch perfekt eingefangene Jazzsession, die glücklich macht.” - Ralf Henke, hifitest.de


  • Jamie Saft Quartet, Blue Dream

    Jamie Saft Quartet, Blue Dream

    16/06/2020

    Author: Karsten Hein

    Category: Audiophile Music

    Tag(s): Jazz

    ‘It is worthwhile to consider that there is no resolution in music like this, only an extended consideration.’ - Michael Bailey, in allaboutjazz

    The four page album offers Jamie Saft’s typical flow in music paired with excellent mastering and pressing, which results in life-like dynamics and low noise floor. Upon listening, I felt that the album could be a little more cohesive with a little less drama in some passages. Michael Bailey’s quotation above is, therefore, absolutely to the point. All in all, still a great adventure for audiophile listeners, often reminiscent of the 1950s Miles Davis and 1960s John Coltrane.


  • Let's explore together

    Let's explore together

    Get in touch with me

    If you happen to live in the greater Frankfurt / Rhine-Main area and own vintage Hi-Fi Stereo classics waiting to be explored and written about, I would be honoured to hear from you!

    Your contact details

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    All reviews are free of charge, and your personal data will strictly be used to organise the reviewing process with you. Your gear will be returned to you within two weeks, and you are most welcome to take part in the listening process. Gear owners can choose to remain anonymous or be mentioned in the review as they wish.

    Thank you for supporting the eiaudio project.

    Audiophile greetings,

    Karsten

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Explorations

Explorations
  • Constructing a Plinth (Dual CS 721)

    Constructing a Plinth (Dual CS 721)

    19/07/2022

    Author: Karsten Hein

    Category: Explorations

    Tag(s): Turntables

    Dual turntables were arguably among the best Hi-Fi devices ever made. One reason for this may have been Dual's early start in the technology, their background in precision instruments, their rootedness in steadfast Black Forest traditions, and perhaps also their geographical proximity to the fabled EMT broadcast equipment manufacturer in the Black Forest town of Lahr, about one hour’s drive from Dual’s home in St. Georgen. Dual would have been among the choices available to Elektromesstechnik engineers looking for new opportunities, and vice versa, in doing so they were cross-pollinating and adding to the expertise of both companies.

    Dual’s CS 721 turntable was sold during the late 1970s and offered state-of-the-art music reproduction in combination with its standard, and by now legendary, Shure V15-III phono cartridge. The turntable offered a myriad of settings for the Hi-Fi enthusiast which made it very attractive, but basic models were somewhat reduced in terms of chassis costs, as Dual was already faced with increased price competition from Asia. For our model of the CS 721 this meant that a solid wood plinth had already given way to laminated surfaces and plastic. This was especially true for the plinth, which was arguably the weakest point of this player.

    Since all the Dual’s other components were of exceptional quality, versatility, and musicality, I looked around for available plinth upgrades. However, the models I found were either not very pretty or very expensive. I was looking for a solution that would enhance the acoustics and be an understatement at the same time. And, ideally, I would be able to use all original parts in case someone wanted to build it back later. So, I decided to construct a plinth around the plastic base and to silence any vibrations with evenly spread rubber foam cushions. I would then choose feet for decoupling that combined ultra-strong support with excellent acoustic insulation. In combinaton, these enhancements should raise the Dual to the next level. At least this was my hope.

    I bought solid strips of high-quality American walnut to form a frame that I cut to fit using a miter saw. My friend Thomas was available to support me in this, because getting the trim perfect proved to be a lengthy and difficult process given the semi-professional equipment we had available to us. We glued the pieces to a base board and cut a three cm notch into the back board to hold the cables. I then applied a foam rubber band along the outer edges and across the base board to support and quiet the original plinth construction. We used beeswax to finish the surfaces, as opposed to oil, and placed the Dual CS 721 inside. — Voila!

    I must say that I am happy with the new design and love the sound. How do you feel about the look? Click on the header picture of this article to leave your comment below.

    Specifications

    • Type: Dual CS 721 plinth, and similar
    • Base material: beech multi-plywood
    • Side material: American walnut, waxed
    • Dimensions: (W) 424mm; (D) 368mm; (H) 60mm
    • Acoustic liner: 5x3mm foam rubber
    • Feet: Audiocrast Tri-Ball Absorbers

  • Dynavox VR-70E II (Part 2)

    Dynavox VR-70E II (Part 2)

    26/05/2022

    Author: Karsten Hein

    Category: Explorations

    Tag(s): Power Amplifiers

    When I wrote my first review of the affordable Chinese import tube amplifier back in January 2022, I promised that I would write an update on my impression of the VR-70E II after it was returned to me following some modifications. My reason for having the amplifier revised had been the level of humming, its lack in audiophile frequency extension, as well as poor transients and imaging, which altogether resulted in a certain blandness of sound. My original tests had been conducted with our Dynaco PAS-4 tube preamplifier and the formidable 8 Ohms Tannoy XT-8f tower speakers.

    Upon my handing in the amp, the tube specialist had offered a speedy service within a couple of weeks, to which I had agreed. Then, however, he had somehow gotten caught up in other projects and seemed to have forgotten about me. When he then started to ignore my phone calls—after five months of patience on my side—I decided that enough time had been wasted and picked the VR-70E II up in close-to-original condition. I think we were both surprised and sad that I should have taken such resolute measures, but it seems that I had simply run out of patience with him. On my drive home, with the amp in the back of our car, I was wondering what could be done next: Sell it? Keep it for a later project?—I would need to listen to it one more time to make my final decision.

    Now, I am not sure if you sometimes have a sonic memory of the things that you have listened to. We commonly have this gift when it comes to scents or smells. As we often connect scents with emotions, we tend to remember them for a long time. This is especially true for the early experiences in our lives, and we might remember the smell of our kindergarten, or school, or perhaps of the house of your grandparents. Well, it seems that some people have a sonic memory.

    For instance, I vividly remember the sound signature of my first CD player. This was a 1988 JVC XL-Z444, and I recently even purchased this unit again, just to enjoy the sound one more time. This was not an audiophile CD player by any means and it does not need to be discussed in this blog, but its stoic crudeness and pitch-black backdrop certainly had its charm and served to set it apart from vinyl records, cassettes, and radio broadcasts at the time. I really celebrated listening to it again and having my juvenile memories confirmed. In a similar way, I still held a sonic memory of VR-70, and I was a little bit frightened of having this revived the second time around.

    With five months having passed since my original test, the set-up environment of our smaller system had meanwhile changed. The Dynaco tube design had given way to our Restek V1 solid state preamplifier. The speakers, too, had been replaced. Instead of the Tannoys, a pair of Epicure EPI 500 had found its way into the lineup and had just been optimised in terms of coupling towards the hardwood floor. In the meantime, I had learnt from trying to match the Dynaco with our B&K ST-140 amplifier that this preamp could easily have a lowpass effect in some set-up combinations. In my first test, I had all too hastily attributed the experienced loss in top-end to the Dynavox amp. This had happened, because I had been as yet unaware of the PAS-4’s shortcomings in terms of compatibility.

    Hence, when I sat down to listen to the VR-70 E II this time around, the treble was more open and spacious with improved transients right from the start. I was also happy to find that the original tube-hissing that I had heard from the amp had disappeared. The reason for this was twofold: first, the Restek V1 was a dead-silent preamp to begin with, whereas the PAS-4 produced a mild tube hissing on its own; second, the technician had found a grounding problem with the VR-70 itself. He saw that the properties of its pharadeic cage had been compromised by the bottom plate being paint-coated. He had consequently removed the paint to include the floor plate with the chassis grounding scheme. This had a significant effect on the VR-70's noise floor, which was now hardly audible, even with the ear held near the tweeter.

    The original lowpass effect in combination with the Dynaco had also made me overly hasty in turning the amp in for service—after just 40 hours of listening. Since then, the technician had adjusted the amp’s bias to 350 mV and allowed it to run for a few more hours. This, too, had given the factory-new amplifier some time to homogenise its frequency response (break-in time) and helped to take some of the initial harshness off the critical vocal section. With the top-end having opened up and the bottom end having gained power due to reduced grounding noise, there was now more depth and dimension to the music in many ways. In direct contrast to the B&K ST-140 solid state amp, which had performed to our satisfaction in this position before, the VR-70 E II presented a considerably larger stage with very similar tonality. 

    Vocals seemed grainier on the Dynavox, an impression that did not lessen even when the tubes were at full operating temperature. At the same time, voices seemed slightly more distant on some recordings. I especially noted this effect on Tony Bennett & Diana Krall’s album “Love is here to stay”. This may have been intrinsic to the Chinese tubes that had surely not been chosen for their superior tonal characteristics but rather for their bang-for-buck regarding their use on an entry-level amp. At the Dynavox’s current quality of output, I was fine with the idea of having to upgrade the tubes in some not-too-distant future in order to fulfil the promise of audiophile bliss.

    From my original four complaints about the amp: bland top-end, tube hissing, poor imaging, and grainy voices, only the last point remained. And this—surprisingly—despite all original parts still being present. I felt a little silly for not having tried matching a different preamplifier in the first place, but then again, I probably would not have learnt about the chassis grounding issue on my own. The experience only shows why it is so important that this page is called “Explorations in Audio” and not 'Facts' or 'Truths' in Audio. Life means ever learning, and only the mindset of the Explorer can expect and appreciate the surprises that the journey brings. To prove the point, and also to treat myself to today’s Father’s Day present from my wife, I will stop writing and focus my attention on the 1970s album “New Skin For The Old Ceremony” by Leonard Coen on vinyl.

    Back to Part 1 | [to be continued with new tubes…]

    Specifications

    • Power output (RMS, 8 ohms):  2 x 40 watts
    • Input impedance:  20 kOhm
    • Pre-amplifier tubes:  2 x 6F2 (ECF82)
    • Power amplifier tubes:  4 x EL34 (ultra-linear)
    • Tube bias:  300 - 350 mV
    • Frequency response:  10 - 40,000 Hz
    • Total harmonic distortion:  0,1%
    • Signal to noise ratio:  >88 dB
    • Damping factor:  N.N.
    • Output terminals: 4/8 Ohm, gold plated, for spades or bananas
    • Dimensions:  (W) 35,0 cm x (D) 30,0 cm x (H) 18,5 cm
    • Weight:  14,5 Kg
    • Year:  2013 - 2022

  • Turntable Cover Restoration

    Turntable Cover Restoration

    17/05/2022

    Author: Karsten Hein

    Category: Explorations

    Tag(s): Restoration, Turntables

    We might as well face it: Turntable covers have always been little more than a necessary evil. It seems that manufacturers—while suffering great pains in designing their beloved machines—were unable to think of anything more exciting than simply slapping a semi-translucent dustcover on top. And, typically, this cover was made of some easily scratched acrylic compound. For those of us searching for or selling vintage turntables these days, a scratched dustcover often meant a substantial degradation, not only in terms of attractiveness, but also in price.

    Since the non-profit nature of my eiaudio testing series had made me rather price-conscious myself, I could not help but wonder just how much effort it would take to restore a scratched dustcover to its original splendour. The idea of being able to do so myself did seem attractive to the explorer in me. After all, this would enable me to take advantage of the potential price discount granted on the scratched cover, while being able to do the restoration myself. Hence, I contacted a friend, who also happened to be a specialist in automobile restoration, to help me find the best strategy for my project. Thomas was intrigued by the idea of restoring acrylic plastic and took the badly scratched dustcover of our Thorens TD 320, a turntable I had purchased some weeks earlier, to his repair shop.

    Thomas returned the cover to me in mint condition just two days later and informed me which equipment I would need to purchase in order to complete this type of restoration by myself. I took note of his advice and placed my order on the same day.

    Inventory Needed

    • orbital sanding machine
    • sanding paper, grades 240 - 3000 (240 / 320 / 400 / 600 / 800 / 1000 / 1500 / 2000 / 3000)
    • orbital polishing machine
    • polishing pastes in grades fine & extra fine (e.g. 3M ‘Green cap’ / 3M ‘Yellow cap’)
    • one large microfibre cloth


    The total tab would have set me back around 300.00 EUR, but, since we already had an orbital sander in the household, I only needed to purchase the various grades of paper and the polisher with the corresponding pastes and cloth. Thomas thankfully offered to keep me company during my first sanding attempt. On his advice, we took our little sanding project outside. This gave us cleaner air to breathe and protected our household furniture from the fine sanding dust.

    The dustcover to be restored was of a 1978 Dual CS 721 turntable. Next to the typical house cleaning scratches, it also showed two lines of approximately 1mm in depth and 20cm length which had most likely come from piling other items on top of the unit during its years of storage. We discussed the most appropriate choice of sanding grain and decided to start from 320. If the scratches had been any deeper, we would have probably started from grain 240 to be on the safe side.

    We positioned the turntable cover on an even non-slip surface and placed the sander firmly on top of it. The speed dial was set to medium revolutions in order to keep the temperature low during the process. If the temperature became too high, the cover could easily become stained or deformed. The sander was placed on the surface with the motor turned off, and it was turned on only when securely in place. This way, there was less chance of the paper’s sharp edges accidentally cutting new scratches into the surface.

    Thomas explained to me that the machine would need to evenly sand the whole surface until reaching a ‘level 320 sanding result’. (Note: Be sure to keep your fingers away from the paper edge, as this can indeed be quite sharp and easily cut into flesh.) Starting from grain level 320, the turntable cover did become opaque at an instance, and we knew that it would take some time for it to become translucent again. On the positive side, we could watch the deep scratches gradually disappear. We had peeled the Dual logo off with a screwdriver before sanding, and we made a point not to polish the edges of the small cavity where the logo had originally been placed.

    Thomas insisted that we take the time to fully complete each step of the sanding process, thus working our way up from 320, to 400, and then to 600, until all the steps to 3000 had been completed. At each level, we made sure that the surface was fully restored to the level characteristic of that grain. We stayed out of the sun and took breaks to keep the material temperature low. At grain level 3000, the surface started to become translucent once again. We inspected the final result by wiping the surface with the large microfibre cloth.

    Once we were happy with the sanding result, we exchanged our sander with the polisher. Thomas explained that it was best only to use small amounts of polishing paste, as this would otherwise splash about in a circle. As we had done during sanding, we turned the machine on and off while it was in contact with the turntable cover. Thomas showed me how to apply even pressure in order to achieve a uniform result over the whole surface. I saw that one small scratch we had missed in the early stages of sanding also managed to survive all the stages of further treatment. To me, this only highlighted the importance of a very thorough first sanding.

    We checked the polishing result from time to time, until no further progress could be made using the '3M Green' cap paste. It was only then that we changed to the '3M Yellow' cap paste for that final high-gloss polish. Pleased with the result of our work, we found ourselves ready to tidy up the scene of the action approximately one hour after we had started. One hour’s work is probably a good estimate for anyone doing this the second or third time around. I was lucky that I had the help of my professional friend who had made sure I took the correct time and followed all the steps necessary. First time polishers would probably be best off to calculate with 2-3 hours of manual labour.

    I hope you will find this account of events helpful in your own restoration project, even if it is only to help you better appreciate the prices charged by professional restorers. Do feel free to leave a personal comment below. With 'Hyvor Talk', we have recently made social engagement on this platform far easier. — Enjoy.

    Click here to see the full video


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  • Hansahaus Studios Bonn

    Hansahaus Studios Bonn

    15/02/2022

    Author: Karsten Hein

    Category: Explorations

    Tag(s): Audiophile Music

    During the Corona Pandemic in 2021, the German Boogie Woogie pianist Jörg Hegemann produced a CD album that set a new audiophile standard for himself but also for the genre as a whole. And — since I had translated the liner notes for many of Jörg’s CDs — I was also among the first people to audition the new album. “Foot Tappin’ Boogie” took me by surprise, due to its sophistication of music, but also, because the recording itself carried a depth and dimension that I felt was on par with some of the great artists of this world. As an enthusiastic audiophile listener, I had sometimes spoken to Jörg about the subject of recording quality and suggested he attempt a proper studio recording, but when he finally did follow my lead, the result swept me off my feet.

    Jörg explained to me that he had recorded “Foot Tappin’ Boogie” accompanied by double bass man Paul G. Ulrich and with the help of Klaus Genuit at Hansahaus Studios Bonn. Of course, the studio name and its owner did not mean much to me at the time. However, I later learned that some famous names in music had created their albums there. Among them were the American saxophonist Maceo Parker, Jazz guitarist Dean Brown, New York’s Fusion-Jazz duo the 'Brecker Brothers', as well as the German singer Pe Werner. I was delighted and congratulated Jörg for his achievement. At the same time, I felt compelled to start a web-shop connected to my eiaudio.de blog in order to sell Jörg’s “Foot Tappin’ Boogie” CD. I also invited Jörg for an interview about his life and career which I posted on YouTube. I also made a point in thanking Jörg for his contribution to audiophile music.

    Some time after our interview in mid-November 2021, Jörg asked me if I felt that the audiophile community might appreciate an album that was especially dedicated to them and if I would be interested in joining him in the making of it, to which I most readily consented. Jörg suggested that he would ask double bass man Paul G. Ulrich and 'Boogie Shouter' Thomas Aufermann to join him once again. They would go back to the same studio and also rent the same legendary Steinway & Sons grand piano, hoping that Klaus Genuit would support him in the recording and mastering of the album. If all things worked out, I would have the opportunity to join the musicians on their first day in the studio and to offer my suggestions regarding the parameters of the recording. However, this is not to say that I felt at all knowledgeable in this respect.

    Jörg succeeded in his planning and rented Hansahaus Studio A from Friday 11 to Sunday 13 February 2022. This would give give his team two full recording days as well as the Sunday for post-production and mastering. As had been suggested, I drove up to Bonn on the first day of the recording. I arrived at 11:30 AM and parked our car in the courtyard of the piano factory behind the studio. Looking across the parking lot, I saw that Jörg had also just arrived. We walked up a narrow steel staircase and entered the studio through the backdoor. My first sensation was one of space. I saw an acoustically sealed room to the right, a separate area for the double bass to the left, and a large central space that one would need to walk across on the way over to the grand piano that was partly separated by acoustic glass.

    The large mixing console with multiple rows of channels, the rack for amplification, and the gear for processing and recording, were all in a sealed off area overlooking the whole space. I felt that this was a genuinely nice place to record an album. And Klaus Genuit understood about music. He told me that he had studied Classical Music and some Jazz, and that the 300 square meters Hansahaus was already his third studio. He had set it up during the heyday of music production, and much of the equipment was reminiscent of the generous budgets that record companies were willing to spend back in those days. Klaus explained that a studio of this size and equipment would be nearly impossible to set up by a private person having to rely on the funds available from recording these days. The time to make that kind of money from selling records had been over for a while. Klaus himself had started his career in recording on analog equipment working with large reel-to-reel decks but did feel surprisingly little nostalgia about the long forgotten struggles between man and machine.

    As we were sitting back to listen to Klaus Genuit dial in his large JBL 4343 monitors for the recording, I could not help but compare their sound to the one we experience on a daily basis using our electrostatic speakers at our home. During the few occasions I had, listening in the sweet spot, I took note of the following: The JBLs were built flat into the studio’s front wall, which was angled towards the listening position. This created an impressive holographic stage with precise center image and lots of information regarding depth and width. The JBLs' paper-cone midrange drivers portrayed voices in natural tones, although they could appear thin, depending on the audio source. The way the studio was set up, the 4343 sounded a bit dry and were lacking the long decay and nuance that I was used to from our home system. Bass felt very tight and could on occasion build surprisingly at the very low end, especially towards the back of the room. This system had clearly been set up with the aim of serious production rather than celebrating the joy of listening.

    My impression is that the lack of nuance and decay is a mixture of the large amount of wiring with cables touching all over, the acoustic treatments of the room, but perhaps also the result of XLR converters used on many levels. For the supervision of the recording process, the apparent lack of finesse might not mater much or even be an asset, as it pushes the sound engineer to try harder. In the end, it all boils down to the age-old discussion between the sound engineer in the studio and the audiophile at home about what matters in music reproduction. I was not going to enter this discussion, because I was indeed very happy with the final products that come out of Hansahaus Studios.

    Jörg Hegemann, Paul G. Ulrich, and Thomas Aufermann had come into the studio to do business and set to work right away. They recorded nine songs for the new “High End Boogie Woogie” album on the first day. Jörg hit the keys of the grand piano so hard that he literally broke into a sweat in the process. All the restraint of cancelled performances during the Covid was finally broken for the time of the recording, and title after title found its way onto the hard drive. The second day saw the recording of a further six songs for the album, and the final day was reserved for the mastering of the album. When I last spoke to Jörg over the phone, he said that he was very pleased with the result. I think, we are both eager to hold the new “High End Boogie Woogie” in our hands, a product dedicated to audiophile listeners like us.


  • Speaker-Audio Demos

    Speaker-Audio Demos

    26/08/2021

    Author: Karsten Hein

    Category: Explorations

    Tag(s): Speakers

    What should a loudspeaker sound like? — Well, if there is a short answer to this question, it is probably this: Ideally, a loudspeaker should sound like the original audio material that is being played back on it. Meaning, the recording of a rocket-launch should sound like the rocket being launched. And the recording of a saxophonist inhaling before playing the next tune should sound exactly like a human being taking a deep breath. A loud sound requires sturdy build quality and lots of air to be moved quickly, whereas a human being inhaling deeply requires the speaker’s ability to present the tiniest nuance.

    Acoustic instruments should be tonally correct with wood sounding like real wood, metal sounding like metal, glass like glass, etc. Voices should be as sweet, captivating, or even as raw as the singer’s own voice demands. Tonal correctness requires the speaker’s material resonance frequencies to be minimal and the moving mass of its drivers to be low. Natural instruments and vocals usually have at least two components: the sound that is deliberately produced and the ambient sound caused by the dimensions of the venue on the day of the recording. Both components should be presented equally well.

    The speaker’s frequency band should ideally be extensive, ranging from 20 Hz to 25kHz and beyond without significantly dropping in dB volume per watt. The ability to do so assures that sounds occurring along the fringes of the spectrum are fully presented. Even if some of these frequencies fall outside of human hearing, they do affect the audible frequency band through layering and overlapping. Maximum realism can only be achieved, if no aspect of the original signal is omitted.

    Much has been written on the linearity of loudspeakers. This refers to the ability to play all frequencies at equal volume. When performing in a home or studio environment, however, the linearity measured and certified in a laboratory has very little to do with the acoustic reality of a private listening room. This is why loudspeaker manufacturers take an educated guess regarding your household or studio furnishings and will accentuate frequencies that they estimate will be absorbed by your furniture and dampen those that will be enforced by your walls and ceiling.

    The result of all this is that ‘speaker sound’ exists, even if loudspeakers are usually sold on the premises of being linear. But can this be shown, recorded, and archived for posterity? Well, at this point I am neither sure it is possible nor that the data produced in a recording of a loudspeaker has any value for the decision making process of which speaker to buy. But, since our project is called ‘Explorations in Audio’, I am willing to ‘explore’ the possibility. You see, explorers are naturally attracted to the unknown, especially, if they are greeted with lots of scepticism.

    In this new series of explorations I am sharing with you how a given loudspeaker performed on the day of the recording in one of our listening rooms, using the recording equipment available to me at the time. The material is then uploaded to a streaming platform to be played back on any random equipment that you might have at hand: anything ranging from the built-in speaker of your mobile phone to your own High-End stereo system. The listening result is then up to you to interpret. I would be interested in reading about your findings during playback in the comments section below or under the YouTube file. — Enjoy :-)

    Standard Audio Source (Type 1):

    • CD-Player: Marantz CD-17
    • DAC: Cambridge DacMagic 100
    • Preamp: Dynaco PAS-4
    • Amplifier: Hafler XL-280

    Standard Recording Equipment:

    • Microphones: the t.bone SC1100 (x2)
    • Recorder: Zoom H4n Pro
    • Mastering: Apple iMovie

    Standard Measuring distances:

    • Microphone to speakers: 200cm
    • Music volume: 75dB (peak average at 200cm)
    • Between microphones: 40cm
    • Distance from ground: 100cm
    • Recorder input sensitivity: 80

    Dahlquist DQ10

    Tannoy XT8t

    Snell Type C IV

    ATD Pata Acustica (Auditorium 23)

    Martin Logan SL3

    TEAC LS-H255-MA

    Original CD Audio


  • The Conduit Incident

    The Conduit Incident

    10/12/2020

    Author: Karsten Hein

    Category: Explorations

    Tag(s): Cables

    Cables on HiFi systems are known to play different roles—and therefore demand for different properties—depending on their positions in the signal chain. For instance, cables that are located near the source of the signal should ideally help to preserve both the detail and dynamics of the source material whilst maintaining a natural tonal balance, whereas cables positioned closer to the output need to uphold speed, musicality, and coherence. In order to ensure this, audiophile analog RCA/cinch interconnects positioned before the preamplifier often come without conventional shielding such as foil or mesh cover.

    Manufacturers such as Kimber Kable, for instance, braid their RCA/cinch interconnects in order to minimise interference despite their lack of a conventional shield. Examples for Kimber’s braiding technique are found on their entry level ‘Tonik’, ‘PBJ’, and ‘Timbre’ cable models, all of which are great fun to play around with. The audible advantages of such concepts lie in superior transparency, speed, and dynamics. On the downside, braided cables are easily agitated by outside interference. Such interference might come in form of high or low frequency radiation or through direct induction when crossing or running parallel to other cables. Taking a peek behind most people’s HiFi racks and seeing the crossing and tangled wires, it quickly becomes clear why interference is an important factor in setting up a system. Add to this the omnipresence of WiFi & cellular communication, and it is no surprise that better wires and better positioning will often have a greater effect on sonic integrity than upgrading the units or speakers themselves. After all, most antennas are simply a short piece of wire, and even that is sufficient for airborne signals to make an impact.

    Which brings me to the starting point of this exploration. One evening, after I had made some changes to the digital wiring behind our rack in order to install our second HiViLux Digital cable, sitting back in my armchair, I noticed that channel separation and imaging on our DAC had fallen to pieces. At first, I attributed this to my own tiredness, to perhaps having gotten used to the high quality of sound, but in the end the change was too abstruce to live with, and so I stuck my head behind the rack to find the culprit. From DAC to preamplifier, we are running a pair of Kimber Timbre RCA/cinch interconnects, and I saw that the two channels were touching in parallel over a distance of about 10cm. As I lifted the upper one off the one lying underneath, I noticed a change in the sound, similar to a blanket being lifted. I could already hear the difference while being bent behind the system. Hence, I fixed the new position and returned to my seat to find that what had previously been lacking had now been restored.

    Following this experience, I began to wonder if it was possible to place spacers between the many cables to make sure that they neither touched nor crossed. I contacted some friends of mine who have a better understanding of electronics, but they were only familiar with the regular binders used to collect and fasten cables behind a rack. They also found it difficult to relate to my finding. One suggested it was a psycho-acoustic phenomenon, and another warned me not to believe everything I read in HiFi magazines. Unable to find professional help, I decided to explore this subject on my own. It occurred to me that the best protection for the cables would span the whole length of the wire, just like a second skin. I went online and found 2m of corrugated conduit of the variety that is used to protect cables from rodent bites in vehicles. I chose the 13mm diameter that would best fit over the cinch plugs. When it arrived in the post, I cut it into lengths of 95cm so that it was slightly shorter than the RCA/cinch interconnects. I pushed it over the whole length and secured it at both ends with black fabric tape. I then used a white marker to label the channel and the signal direction.

    Before reading on, can you guess the outcome? I suspect that you cannot, simply because I had no idea myself before trying. And this is the greatest thing about exploration: our theories need to hold up in practice. Needless to say, I would have favoured a positive outcome in the lines of better imaging, greater musicality, etc., simply because I had invested money and time in this project. Unfortunately, I was not that lucky. I connected the newly constructed Kimber Timbre with conduit, and the result was a sluggish and muffled sound. Most of what makes Kimber’s braided cables special had disappeared. What had been one of my better cables had become one of my worst-sounding. After about 30min of listening, I took the conduit off and had my previous sound back.

    Now, who can tell me what I did wrong? Did I somehow connect the grounds of the two RCA/cinch plugs with the corrugated plastic conduit? Did the wires running inside somehow create an electric current with the conduit? — I am leaving this exploration as a fail for now, but with my present knowledge I cannot be sure of the exact reason of failure, other than to report that it really did sound terrible.


  • Coincidental Cartridge Bake-Off

    Coincidental Cartridge Bake-Off

    06/11/2020

    Author: Karsten Hein

    Category: Explorations

    Tag(s): Cartridges

    Most ideas in audiophile listening do not come over night but rather mature over time, during endless hours of listening. Usually, one thought or experience sparks another, creating a slow but continuous process of evolution. Since most steps are trial and error, victory is never certain, and just when we feel that it all sounds perfect, there is that little nagging voice that claims that we have heard nothing yet. And it is a race against time, of course. With growing experience comes growing age. The race is to hear it all before it all grows numb.

    Our first record player after many years of CDs and mp3s was our grandfather’s Philips 212. We found it in the basement with a protective dust cover on top and with the original cartridge stuck in a faulty bracket meant for another record player. It seems the Philips had broken down many years earlier, and attempts of restoring it had failed. By the time we finally salvaged it in 2018, its rubber drive belt had already turned back into thick oil and was sticking dead and gooey to the floor. We ended up buying a second broken Philips 212 to restore our find.

    The Philips’s original ‘GP400’ cartridge was not a great one to begin with. Given its own mechanical flaws, paired with the inherent shortcomings of the player, as well as nearly 50 years of material decay, our original impression was not exactly one of audiophile bliss. However, our inquisitive nature could not leave it at that. We first tried to improve the performance by replacing the stylus. But this had little effect, perhaps because NOS (new old stock) actually means that the replacement is also, well, old. It was not until we exchanged the GP400 with a modern Audio Technica VM95E cartridge that the Philips 212 finally came alive. Sonically, it was as if a heavy veil had been lifted. From this, record newbie as I was, I learnt that a decent cartridge will have a huge effect on performance.

    Our second record player was a Lenco L75 which was built at around the same time as the Philips. On this, the original cartridge had long since been replaced by a Grado ‘Prestige Blue 2’ cartridge. Grado has a good name for cartridge quality, and the ‘Prestige Blue 2’ has very good specifications. As I later saw, indeed, much higher than the Audio Technica. Yet, somehow, I still preferred the sound of the Philips + Audio Technica to that of the Lenco L75 + Grado, a phenomenon that struck me as odd, as audiophile listeners will usually flock to the latter and disregard the first. I had no answer for this at the time.

    Only recently, when moving from our Tannoy DC6T speakers up the model range to the more bass-heavy Tannoy XT8 speakers, I began to understand what it was that had troubled me: the ‘Prestige Blue 2’ on the Lenco was so silent and well-behaved that it somehow sounded dead and uninspiring to my ears. I guess it took the improved dynamics of the larger Tannoy speakers to point this out to me. So I called a friend to lend me a few Lenco-ready cartridges to try out. — Yes, some people have that sort of gear lying around the house, just in case an neighbour drops bye and needs one. LOL. — I consider myself very lucky to have made friends such as these, of course. What a luxury, to be able to try different gear before making a purchase. Thank you to Luigi and Derya for supporting me whenever I’m an audiophile in need.

    The cartridges I was handed to try out where: A Satin ‘117 G’ (the white Version with the grey needle holder) and a Shure ‘M75-6S’, all pre-mounted in original Lenco head shells which I just had  to fasten to the tonearm. This made changing between the cartridges quick and effortless, a plus when the aim is to compare their sound. As I have always been a fan of laid back and full sounding American gear, I began my journey with the Shure, and I immediately noticed that the M75 plays loud. At 6.2 mV, the Shure has the highest output of the three. I could feel lots of bass punch, perhaps at the expense of control over the lower frequencies. What did I care? While the audiophile in me was a bit confused, my more uncultured side loved the sheer force that was apparent from the moment of putting the needle down. The Shure made my records seem loud and showed audible noise even during silent passages, like someone accidentally brushing over a body microphone during a telco.

    The music came across as voluptuous, musical, and warm. It seemed as if the Shure ‘M75-6S’ was eager to tell the whole story of the record and was having trouble taking its time. I found this aspect to be highly entertaining. While I did have to perform some basic realignments of the cartridge and even asked a Luigi to help me with the cleaning of the needle (with FLUX fluid and a special cleaning machine), it turned out that finding the right cartridge position was relatively simple. Either this, or I had been lucky. All in all, the Shure ‘M75-6S’ is an enjoyable and playful musician with lots of bass slam and musical detail at the ready. If your system-speakers-room combination is bass heavy and imprecise to begin with, stay away from the entry level vintage Shure. But if your system is rather academic or even sterile sounding, the Shure’s do-or-die approach just might add the extra excitement you need. If it were mine, I would keep it for Shure.

    The second option presented to me was the Satin ‘117 G’, a former entry-level High End gem. A first listen showed great potential in the presentation of voices and the placement of instruments. However, it also revealed some inherent flaws that proved the cartridge to be beyond repair (for me, anyway). Somehow, due to age and decay, the magnetic needle holder had lost its firm grip on the needle, and the needle itself showed signs of corrosion. The combination of which lead to sibilant highs and a more general inaccuracy in the music. In my attempt to rescue the Satin cartridge, I ordered a replacement needle, but this showed similar corrosion. Even the foam around the NOS packing disintegrating upon touch, much as a vampire would when facing sunlight. Sad to have lost all hope of salvaging the cartridge, I sent the replacement needle back to the vendor and put the Satin base back in the box.

    Since at this point I had not yet had the chance to experience a range of cartridges in the way I had originally intended and was feeling guilty for returning the Satin needle to the vendor in broken packaging, I decided to order a more elaborate version of the Audio Technica VM95 cartridge from the same vendor instead. This time, not in the version E for Elliptical, as we had for the Philips player, but in the more refined ML version. ML stands for Micro Linear. Two aspects should make the ML stylus superior to the simple ellipses: The nude joining of the needle directly into a hole in the shaft (instead of being soldered on as on the E), and, secondly, the more refined shape and micro-linear cutting of the needle shaft itself. The ML has been designed to pull all available information from the record and has a threefold life expectancy to the elliptical version of up to 1000 listening hours. This did sound promising, indeed. While the VM95 ML is new and will not show signs of ageing, I am aware that the VM95 is an entry level cartridge, and that its specs are not as impressive as those of the Grado, regardless of the needle quality. On the down-side are its poor channel separation of just 23 dB (Grado, 30 dB), as well as limited power generation of just 3.5mV (Shure, 6.2 mV) at peak.

    From experience I know that positive technical specifications do not always translate into great musical experience. One would think that the Grado’s top frequency of 50 kHz would produce far superior sound to the Shure’s maximum of just 20 kHz, or that the Grado’s superior channel separation translates into better imaging. Yet, while our eyes are glued to the specs, our ears may come to opposite conclusions and even prefer the lower-rated device.

    It was therefore not surprising that our first listening impression of the Audio Technica VM95 ML cartridge was very positive, indeed. While it had the urgency of the Shure and could indeed become loud in dynamic passages, it was very much capable of delivering nuance as well. The audio band seemed to extend further, much like that of the Grado’s, but it did so without seeming hyper-controlled or sterile. The music was full of detail and colorful. The VM95 ML offers more bass contour, showing subtle differences in the playing of bass notes. While the Shure smothered over some musical delicacy with omnipresent bass, the VM95 ML was able to present full and controlled bass, and it was painting beautiful colors at the same time. The information on the record seems to be accurately and sensibly reproduced. From my previous experience with the Audio Technica V95 cartridge on the Philips, I knew that the engine can sound a little crude at times. Perhaps this is due to a design decision and a matter of taste rather than a flaw. Both the Grado and the Shure sounded more relaxed and vinyl-like, while losing some of the joy and musical clarity on the way. I will need to give it some time for me to fully comprehend what the Audio Technica is capable of. But I can already say that even Diana Krall’s “Glad Rag Doll”, perhaps her most difficult album to play well, sounds excellent with it. This settles my decision for now.

    The cartridges discussed here are:

    Grado Prestige Blue 2
    Sound: Ultra silent on the record, precise, academic, warm, controlled bass

    • Frequency Response: 10-50.000 kHz
    • Channel Separation at 1KHz: 30 dB
    • Input Load: 47K
    • Output at 1KHz 5CM/sec.: 5mV
    • Recommended Tracking Force: 1.5 g
    • Stylus Type: Elliptical
    • Inductance: 45 mH
    • Resistance: 475 Ω
    • Weight: 5.5 g
    • Year: 2017 -2019
    • OSP: EUR 125,00 (Germany)
    • Stylus Replacement: Original, EUR 90,00

    Grado Labs
    4614 7th Avenue
    Brooklyn, NY
    11220 USA

    _____________________________________________

    Shure M75-6S
    Sound: Noisy on the record, voluptuous, musical, warm, full and sloppy bass

    • Frequency Response: 20 to 20,000 Hz
    • Channel Separation at 1KHz: 20 dB
    • Input Load:
    • Output at 1KHz 5CM/sec.: 6.2mV
    • Recommended Tracking Force: 2.5 grams
    • Stylus Type:  Spherical
    • Inductance: 720 mH
    • Resistance: 630 ohms
    • Weight: 5.6 grams
    • Year: 1972 - 1979
    • OSP: DM 92,00 (Germany)
    • Stylus Replacement: OEM, EUR 30,00

    Shure Brothers lncorporated
    1501 West Shure Drive
    Arlington Heights Illinois 60004

    _____________________________________________

    Satin M 117 G
    Sound: N.N

    • Frequency Response: 20 to 25,000 Hz
    • Channel Separation at 1KHz: 25 dB
    • Input Load: 40 Ohm
    • Output at 1KHz 5CM/sec.: 3mV
    • Recommended Tracking Force: 1.3 grams
    • Stylus Type:  Elliptical
    • Resistance: 50 ohms
    • Weight: 9,2 grams
    • Stylus Replacement: NOS, EUR 90,00 (with caution)

    Shure Brothers lncorporated
    1501 West Shure Drive
    Arlington Heights
    Illinois 60004


    Musik by Cara live music

Interviews

  • Jörg Hegemann

    Jörg Hegemann

    28/11/2021

    Author: Karsten Hein

    Category: Interviews

    Tag(s): Musicians

    About the Interview

    Many years ago, I was asked to translate a CD booklet into English. It turned out that the CD was a new album by the Boogie Woogie pianist Jörg Hegemann, a music style that I had no personal connection to at the time. Over the years, I translated many of Jörg's CD booklets, but it was not until his release of "Foot Tappin' Boogie" that I could fully appreciate the genius of Jörg's music.

    "Foot Tappin' Boogie" is perhaps the first audiophile Boogie Woogie album ever recorded, because of two reasons: First, the Boogie Woogie was mostly famous in the 1930s and 40s, a time when the technology to create audiophile albums was not yet available. Second, audiophile recordings depend on so many factors that they are rare in any genre, including Boogie Woogie.

    What Jörg achieved thanks to the support of Klaus Genuit at Hansastudios Bonn with "Foot Tappin' Boogie" is so exceptional that I decided to invite him, to be my first guest on a series of interviews in eiaudio's "Music & Talk" section. I was a little shocked when he asked for the interview to be in German, but after spending a day-and-a-half on writing the subtitles for it, can say that I am happy with the result — even for international viewers.

    I thank Jörg for stopping by and for his consent to this interview. Hopefully, this will lead many people to the discovery of this album as an audiophile gem. Because — if there is one thing that audiophiles need — it is more variety in music. Too many of us are still listening to Pink Floyd's "The Dark Side of the Moon" album and believe that it all went downhill from there. — High time to wake up and smell the coffee.

    Purchase the album here and support the eiaudio-project, click here.

    Jörg Hegemann Interview

    Interview details

    • Recorded at eiaudio.de in Frankfurt Griesheim
    • Using 2x t.bone SC-1100 microphones
    • On a Zoom H4n Pro recorder
    • Date: 22 November 2021